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It seems that every year, usually during the colder months, some type of flu is spreading around and causing people to get sick. Generally, doctors can quickly decipher what strain of influenza is scattering about and can often treat it quickly, but in January of 1918, that wasn’t exactly the case. A lethal strain of influenza was rapidly leaving millions of its victims worldwide while doctors raced to find a cure. No one could identify how the influenza started or where it came from. It’s a mystery that even to this day, almost a hundred years later, remains unsolved.
The flu of 1918, better recognized as the Spanish influenza, first struck in a small town in Alaska named Brevig Mission
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Before the emergency of the Great War, known today as World War 1 (WWI) had ended, a new crisis which would fully engage pharmacists had already begun to show itself ? the influenza pandemic. Also known as the ?Spanish Flu? (it was called the Spanish Flu because Spain experienced the first major outbreak) or ?La Grippe?, the influenza has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. More people died of influenza in a single year than in four years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague (1347 ? 1351). Casualties were as high as 20-40 million people, many more than that of WW1. The Spanish Flu epidemic was a global disaster and here in Australia, it was just as bad.In
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Influenza is defined as an acute, commonly epidemic disease, occurring in several forms, caused by numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms and general prostration. Spanish flu was more than just a normal epidemic, it was a pandemic. Epidemics affect many people at the same time in areas where the disease doesn’t normally occur. A pandemic is an epidemic on a national, international, or global scale. The Spanish flu was different from the seasonal flu in one especially frightening way, there was an unusually high death rate among healthy adults aged 15 to 34 and lowered the life expectancy by more than ten years. Such a high death rate has not
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March 18, 2014
The Response to the Influenza of 1918
At the time, the Influenza of 1918 was called the Spanish Flu. Spain was not involved in the expanding great war (i.e., World War I) and therefore was not censoring it's press. However, Germany, Britain, and America were censoring their newspapers for anything that would lower morale. Therefore, Spain was the first country to publish accounts of the pandemic (Barry 171 and Furman 326), even though the pandemic most likely started in either France or the United States. It was also unique in it's deadliness; it “killed more people in a year than the Black Death of the Middle Ages killed in a century
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entirely. According to the CDC this is what caused the Bird Flu epidemic.
Influenza A is the most complex of the categories of the Influenza virus because Influenza A can be categorized into something called serotypes. These are categories based on the antibody response to the virus. The known serotypes that have infected humans are: H1N1 (Spanish and Swine Flu), H2N2 (Asian Flu), H7N3, H3N2 (Hong Kong Flu), H7N7, H1N2 (endemic in pigs, birds, and humans), H7N2, H5N1 (Bird Flu), H9N2, H10N7, and H7N9 (Influenza). The serotypes are named by H (number) and N (number); this is because the virus has two surface antigens one of the 18 types of Hemagglutinin “H” and one of the 11 types of
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lethal, the virus can only start a pandemic if it is able to be spread easily. Throughout the 20th century there were three pandemics, one in 1918, one in 1957, and one in 1968. Each of which resulted in large numbers of deaths.
The 1918 pandemic was known as the “Spanish Flu” and was Influenza strain A(H1N1) and it caused the highest known influenza death rate known, 500,000 Americans and 20 million people worldwide.
The 1957 pandemic was known as the “Asian Flu” and was Influenza strain A(H2N2) and caused 70,000 U.S. deaths.
The 1968 Pandemic was known as the “Hong Kong Flu” and was Influenza strain A(H3N2) and caused 34,000 deaths in the U.S.
The emergence of the “Hong Kong Flu” in 1968
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lethal, the virus can only start a pandemic if it is able to be spread easily. Throughout the 20th century there were three pandemics, one in 1918, one in 1957, and one in 1968. Each of which resulted in large numbers of deaths.The 1918 pandemic was known as the "Spanish Flu" and was Influenza strain A(H1N1) and it caused the highest known influenza death rate known, 500,000 Americans and 20 million people worldwide.The 1957 pandemic was known as the "Asian Flu" and was Influenza strain A(H2N2) and caused 70,000 U.S. deaths.The 1968 Pandemic was known as the "Hong Kong Flu" and was Influenza strain A(H3N2) and caused 34,000 deaths in the U.S.The emergence of the "Hong Kong Flu" in 1968-1969
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, H2N2, H1N1 and H1N2. H1N1 was the virus that caused the Spanish influenza pandemic in 1918 that killed 20 million people as well as the Russian pandemic of 1977 which was less lethal1.
Currently, only two influenza type A virus subtypes are in general circulation among humans, H1N1 and H3N2. So far, the spread of H5N1 from person to person has been rare, very limited and not sustainable. However, of the 271 cases of H5N1 in humans reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) 59.1% were lethal cases. The continued cases of human H5N1 outbreaks, although restricted, cause concerns of a new and highly lethal influenza pandemic possibly in the future for humans2.
Most recently an H7N9
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' history is the 1918 influenza epidemic. Twenty-five percent of Americans were infected and 500,000 people died (Schoch-Spana 2001, S32). This outbreak earned the name "Spanish influenza" not because of its origins, but because the epidemic received a lot of publicity in Spain, a country with uncensored press that was uninvolved in World War I (Schoch-Spana 2000, 1410). It is uncertain where the initial outbreak occurred; however, most sources say that it began in the United States in the spring of 1918. The disease was most prevalent toward the end of World War I. It was initially spread through the United States troops who were brought to the Allied front. By the end of 1918, Spanish influenza
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In 1918-19 approximately 50 million deaths were a detriment of the Spanish H1N1 virus pandemic; a respiratory virus. According to the World Health Organization, the second Influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009 spread to more than 200 countries causing more than 18 000 deaths. Before the World Health Organization had announced the official end of the pandemic in August 2010, in July 2009 the World Health Organization sent out a phase 6 warning that H1N1 could soon be a global pandemic. It is important to recognize that the 2 different outbreaks had different A/H1N1strains effecting the world population; this suggests A/H1N1has a high ability for mutation, severely complicating
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The epidemic began at around the end of the first World War and was the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. Some symptoms of the influenza included muscle pains, sore throat, headache, fever, glandular disturbances, eye aberrations, heart action slowing, and depression of all bodily functions and reactions. The flu is highly contagious and spreads around easily whenever an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks. This global disaster was nicknamed the “Spanish Flu,” or “La Grippe.” The nickname of the Spanish Flu came from one of the earliest countries to be hit hard by influenza; eight million people in Spain were killed in the May of 1918. There were also other
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what killed a patient. They would not dare claim that a patient died of influenza for fear of generating a panic. The epidemic was lost in the rhetoric of the war. The deaths were lumped together with other wartime losses, and the epidemic became a part of World War One, not a separate entity. In one attempt to hush the disease, the US Army newspaper omitted one half of the total casualties, deleting all deaths that were the result of influenza.12 Although the newspapers were attempting to keep the disease under wraps, it was evident both in the military and in civilian life that the Spanish flu had taken over their lives.
The flu was running rampant in all parts of the world. Still
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citizens of those countries, especially since World War I was still occurring. Spain, acting as a neutral state during the war, was the only nation who reported the events of the influenza in their newspapers. As a result of their lack of censorship, the influenza was wrongfully associated with Spain. It was nicknamed “The Spanish Flu” despite not actually originating in Spain. The viral strain arose in America in Haskell, Kansas and was believed that the strain caused an outbreak in a close by army base. It was predicted that the American military men carried the virus into the states and soon spread eastwards. Unlike previous influenzas, the Spanish Flu occurred in three waves. The
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The influenza pandemic of 1918 had not only altered the lives of thousands, but the habitual lives of family and work as well. The Spanish Influenza collected more lives than all of the casualties of war in the twentieth century combined. After the disease had swept through the nation, towns that once began their days in lazy, comfortable manners had begun to struggle to get through a single day. What started as a mild neglect of a typical fever or case of chills had escalated and grown at an alarmingly rapid rate to be fearsome and tragic.
The influenza spread through the simplest means of a welcoming handshake, a gentle touch, or the lightest kiss. Anna Milani, a survivor of the
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overcome resistance. The newe strain often cause small outbreaks of infection. The type A virus is highly unstable; new strains arise constantly thruoghout the world. These are the strains that caused the influenza pandemics of this century, most notably the Spanish flu in in 1918, Asian flu in 1957, and Hon Kong flu in 1968.Pneumonia develops from inhaling infected mucus into the lower respitory passages. The pneumonia coccus is often present in the nasal or throat secretions of healty people, and it tends to be present even more often in the same secretions of an individual with the cold. Under certain conditions these secretions may be aspirated, or inhaled, into the lung. There the bacteria
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flu's genetic material, an alteration into a completely different strain (4). As was the case of the 1918 Spanish Flu virus, a pandemic that killed more than 20 million people worldwide, it is also possible for genes that code for the proteins within the virus to split and recombine (10). The influenza virus can also jump from one species to another, exchanging genetic material in viruses afflicting different animals and creating new influenza strains (9).
By the time each vaccine is created, new strains of the flu are usually circulating. This is why influenza vaccines can only be made using flu varieties of the previous year, combining different strains of those flues in order to best
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, usually the cause of the more severe disease. “Subsequent waves often begin simultaneously in several parts of the world intensifying the abrupt disruption at the global level” (WHO, 2005, 24). In the twentieth century, the world witnessed three influenza pandemics in the years of 1918, 1957, and 1968.
The most notorious influenza pandemic of the past century was the pandemic of 1918. Regarded as the most deadly disease event in human history, it was responsible for the death of over 40 million people in less than a year, 5 times more than the 8.3 million soldiers killed on all the military fronts of World War I (WHO, 2005). Also called the “Spanish Flu”, the 1918 pandemic occurred in two
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basic sanitary steps with the seasonal flu. Some sanitary step examples would be to cover your mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, wash your hands frequently, and avoid touching the face. (IAFF, 2009)
The H1N1 virus appeared in 1918 and again in 2009. That is why the younger, healthier immune systems were attacked. The H1N1 virus spread very quickly but did not cause a large amount of deaths worldwide. However, the Spanish flu in 1918 did cause a decent amount of deaths. Thankfully, Pandemics only occur every 10-50 years.
Khanna, M., Gupta, N., Gupta, A., & Vijayan, V. K. (2009, September). Influenza a (h1n1) 2009: a pandemic alarm. Retrieved from http
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pathogenic virus alphainfluenzavirus Orthomyxoviridae, more commonly known as the human flu. This is no simple cold virus; the historical records of this disease reveal that the three major flu pandemics in the 20th century, most notably the 1918 Spanish Flu, wiped out an estimated 20-50 million people (CDC). Furthermore, it is almost certain that the next pandemic will be caused by a strain of influenza called H5N1, A.K.A. the notorious avian flu (CDC). Experts warn that question of this pandemic is not “if”, but “when”. So what does the future hold for us?
Here are some basic facts about this seemingly mundane disease: 5%-20% of the US population gets the flu annually, with the young and
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Influenza better known as “The Flu” strikes the world every year infecting millions of people throughout different countries. Influenza is a deadly virus is an extremely contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza viruses. Flu appears most frequently in winter and early spring. The influenza virus attacks the body by spreading through the upper or lower respiratory tract. There have been documented traces of the flu as early as the 12th century. The flu came back on surfaced the Earth in early in the 20th century around World War One in China. Approximately infecting 20% to 40% of the world’s population became ill. This pandemic
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The most personal life decisions of every person on this planet are involved when deciding the incentives for sacrificing the future for the present. This rings true when looking at the decision to mass-produce a vaccine to help control the epidemics of the early twentieth century. The first record of an influenza pandemic was of an outbreak in 1580, which began in Asia and spread to Europe via Africa. In Rome, over 8,000 people were killed, and several Spanish cities were nearly wiped out. Periodic outbreaks occurred during the 17th and 18th centuries and continued on into the 20th century as well. The most famous and lethal pandemic was that of the so-called Spanish flu pandemic of 1918
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JK, Morens DM. 1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jan.
“The Influenza Pandemic of 1918.” Billings, Molly. Stanford University Virology. June 1, 1997. retrieved from http://virus.stanford.edu/uda/
“The Site of Origin of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Its Public Health Implications.” Barry, John. US national Library of Health Medicine, January 20, 2004. Retrieved from:
“The Spanish Flu Epidemic Begins: March 11, 1918." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 6: North America. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. World History in Context. Web. 9 Mar. 2014.
“Flu Studies Point to Isolation for Prevention." Morning Edition 3 Apr. 2007. World History in Context. Web. 9 Mar. 2014.
“1918 Killer Flu Reconstructed.” Knox, Richard. National Public Radio, October 5, 2005
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In the 14th century, the Black plague killed over 1/3rd of the global population. 200 years later, influenza killed another 15 million. Then, in the early 1900’s, the Spanish Flu infected 500 million people in only two years. Pandemics have affected the world since the biblical era. These rampaging viruses have turned once prosperous towns into lonely ghost towns. Civilizations have been reshaped, cultures and politics devolved, and the hope of nations has been shattered. When will the next pandemic hit? What will it be? What can be done, if anything at all? According to most epidemiologists, we are long overdue for the next outbreak.
The black plague was greatly feared and lethal but
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). Emergency Planning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Scanlon, J., McMahon, T. & van Haastert, C. (2007). Handling Mass Death by Integrating the Management of Disasters and Pandemics: Lessons from the Indian Ocean Tsunami, the Spanish Flu and Other Incidents". Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. 15(2), DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5973.2007.00511.x
Tabery, J., Mackett, C.W., (2008). The Ethics of Triage in the Event of an Influenza Pandemic. PhiSci Archive, University of Pittsburg. Accessed 2/19/2012
Thompson, A.K., Faith, K., Gibson, J.L. & Upshur, R. (2006). Pandemic influenza preparedness: an ethical framework to guide decision-making
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women got the right. Certain women, who did not have soldiers in their families, could not vote. As a result, the Wartime Elections Act had a negative impact on Canadian people politically.
The Spanish Influenza was a contributing factor to the many deaths that occurred during this time. In 1918-1919, a form of influenza killed between 20 and 40 million people around the world. Many soldiers, who had survived years of trench warfare, died from this silent killer. It was spread by unclean conditions on ships travelling from Europe back to their home nations. The flu spread into homes because the soldiers were affected by it and then it was passed on to their family members. This influenza
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Europeans that came to the Southeast to stay in the Southeast, adding to the ability of the Spanish to conquer the Indian nations.
Adding to the inevitability of the dominance of the colonial Southeast is the fact that the Indians had no immunity to the new diseases and sicknesses the Europeans brought over with them. The Europeans brought over all sorts of diseases, from the "childhood diseases" of chicken pox, measles and mumps to lethal strains of influenza, small pox, typhus, diphtheria, and bubonic plague. This influx of lethal diseases drastically reduced the Indian population further setting up the eventual dominance of European culture.
The effect the English had on the Indians was
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within its borders. The news in that country was full of the horrors of the flu. Their openness about its effects probably led to its being named after their people.
It soon spread to the majority of the world due to the reach of World War I at the time of its influence. Over 500 million people were caught the disease (Norrisw, 2009). Soldiers from America being shipped by boat to the war zones were definitely one of the key causes of its spread. According to Tokiko Watanabe’s journal, ‘the “Spanish flu” caused an estimated 20-50 million deaths worldwide (Watanabe & Kawaoka, 2011).’
The cause of this disease was the virus is called influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (ibid). Recently
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he had the answer. His discovery, Pfeiffer’s bacillus or Hemophilus influenzae, was widely known as the culprit. However, during the first wave of the 1918 pandemic, doctors lost faith in Pfeiffer’s bacillus. They searched for it in patients, but rarely found it. In the second wave, the bacterium was present in many, but by no means all, cases of Spanish flu. If it was the cause of influenza, it should have been present in all cases (Kolata, Flu 64-65).
Since then, doctors have isolated the virus responsible for the killer flu. Luckily, doctors working during the pandemic had preserved slices of lung from two soldiers, which were stored in a warehouse. The third sample came from a woman in
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: "Spanish influenza" in 1918, "Asian influenza" in 1957, and "Hong Kong influenza" in 1968. The 1918 pandemic killed an estimated 40-50 million people worldwide. That pandemic, which was exceptional, is considered one of the deadliest disease events in human history. Subsequent pandemics were much milder, with an estimated 2 million deaths in 1957 and 1 million deaths in 1968.A pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges and starts spreading as easily as normal influenza - by coughing and sneezing. Because the virus is new, the human immune system will have no pre-existing immunity. This makes it likely that people who contract pandemic influenza will experience more serious disease
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SPAIN-- after all, it was the FIRST (not forgetting the Basques, St.
Brendan, and the Norse Vikings)
SPAIN--almost invisible to Americans--because we see Hispanic culture through the lens of Latin America. We do not teach Castilano in our schools, we teach Spanish, a language NOT spoken in Spain.
Also, possibly by Franco's regime in the modern era--counteracted by the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao.
SPAIN's position in historical terms--Mediterranean, Atlantic -as far West as Ireland//Europe, Africa -8 miles away. This is why Spain becomes the connector between the New World and the ancient world of Greece, Rome and later Islam.)
Size: second only to
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bodily fluids. It can even be spread by sharing infected bedding and clothing.
The first vaccine for smallpox was created in the 1758. Since then it has saved many lives, but also killed some people.
This graph shows the mortality rate of the smallpox virus versus the vaccine from 1906 to 1922. Even the though it seen that the vaccine killed many people, it killed much less than the actual virus and saved many lives.
Smallpox like, the bubonic plague and the spanish influenza has killed millions of people worldwide. The smallpox virus has components of both the bubonic plague and the spanish flu. Just like the bubonic plague, lesions on the skin appear. The smallpox is not as big as the
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Over the past fifteen years H5N1 influenza (also known as Avian Flu or Bird Flu) has become a common topic of speculation and debate worldwide, causing quite a bit of confusion about its possible impacts on our society. At this point in time it is generally recognized by the international medical community that Avian Flu is bound to become a pandemic, most likely within the next ten years. Research on Avian Flu and its effects have led many scholars to make grave predictions of major global turmoil while a small portion of medical scientists remain skeptical, believing we will have enough time to thoroughly prepare for the outbreak. The one thing that nearly all health professionals seem
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The history of development of European empires in the Americas dates back to the early sixteenth century. Western Europe created vast colonial empires in the Americas. Of the various colonial empires, the Spanish and English were the most prominent which brought a dramatic change in the natural and human environment in the Americas. The voyage of Christopher Columbus in August 1492 marks as the formal beginning of European entry in the Americas. While arriving at in the New World, Christopher Columbus was filled with an immense ambition for colonizing the islands and gathering riches. Both the English and Spanish had more or less the same core motive in coming to the Americas. However, the
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The news of a New World spread like a forest fire throughout Europe and the race for colonies between Portugal and Spain began. Each country started to conquer the ancient civilizations and exploit the continents raw material. This collision deeply affected all of the Atlantic societies. The conquistadors had a powerful effect that began to create a truly new world in Latin America; the New World would never then be the same after 1492.When Columbus waded shore two ecosystems amalgamated and clashed. When the Europeans arrived, they brought diseases that the Native Americans were not immune to including small pox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, diphtheria, yellow fever
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Colonization of the Spanish in the AmericasLeonce Moussavou10/14/14World History 136.06Spanish Colonization in the New WorldThe Spanish established an extensive and elaborate empire in the Americas, covering the entire western coast of South America, all of Central America, the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of the United States, including New Mexico and Florida. This colossal domain took years of effort and endeavor to colonize and establish astructured system. Prior to the 15thcentury, the Spanish were completely unaware of the fact that a whole hemisphere of the world lay uncovered. Eventually, exposure to this New World came through indirect discoveries,leading up to direct contact, in
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Christopher Columbus, whose historical voyage arguably started the movement.
The introduction of Old World diseases was a substantial catalyst in the building of American colonial societies. Diseases such as smallpox devastated the native people’s populations. According to one estimate, within the span of the 16th century, the native population of central Mexico was reduced to about 700,000 from at least 13 million. (The Earth and Its Peoples, 475) Other regions were similarly affected by the disease and others such as measles, typhus, influenza, and malaria. These diseases, in effect, cleared the way for European settlers, although, in a somewhat gruesome fashion.
A significant factor in
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cacao bean. Forced labor among Native Americans no longer seemed like a practical approach, considering most of the population was eradicated under brutal treatment and newly introduced diseases from Europeans such as “smallpox, measles, mumps, whooping cough, influenza, chicken pox, and typhus” (Mcneill). Thus, the Spanish and Portuguese began enslaving thousands of Africans to work under brutal, inhumane conditions. Cocoa production depended on a prosperous system known as triangular trade. European ships would travel to the coast of Western Africa to trade iron products for slaves. Continuing on to the Americas, the slaves would be traded for agricultural products, returning back to Europe
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is the latent stage. If a host recovers from an infection he or she has acquired immunity to the disease and are not re-infected.
Many types of diseases were brought into the Americas. The main diseases were smallpox, measles, influenza, and typhus. There were also other diseases such as whooping cough, the mumps, and diphtheria. Each disease has a specific entry into the body, and each can cause various types of symptoms. For example, diphtheria enters the body through the respiratory tract and attaches to the tissue in the throat. This disease can cause a blockage of the air passage to the lungs and can cause suffocation or death. Whooping cough is also highly contagious and can cause
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cytokine storm (an overreaction of the bodies immune system).
No one is quite sure exactly how the Spanish Flu began or where it originated. Some researchers and scientists have pointed to origins in China, while others say it originated in Kansas. The most common first case occurred in Fort Riley. Fort Riley, in Kansas, was a military outpost where new recruits were trained before being sent to Europe to fight in World War 1. On March 11, 1918, Private Albert Gitchell, who was a company cook, came down with symptoms that seemed to be a simple bad cold. Because of his symptoms, Gitchell went to get checked at the infirmary. After going to the infirmary, he was isolated. An hour after Gitchell
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. As Haring suggests Ocean Sea' became "the medium of the world's commercial activity" which paved the way for the process of the "Expansion of Europe". Thus the power shifted from the Mediterranean to the North Atlantic with the European move onto the ocean.
During the 15th and the 16th centuries Europeans established colonies in the Americas and the Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the so-called discovery of New World by Columbus in 1492 while he was searching for a new route to Asian Indies. As Columbus recounted in his letter to the king of Spain, Americas was a kind of heaven with its prosporous land which was "full of trees of a thousand kinds". In fact, Columbus
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Spanish council and hold him hostage until their demands were met.”(Gale) These tactics often would the explorers up in situations where they were at war with the Natives. This almost ensured that exploration of the Americas was going to have negative effects.
The Americas were the first to be explored. The biggest factor to why exploration had negative effects was what is called the ‘hidden enemy’, disease. The Native Americans had no immunity to diseases that the European explorers and colonists brought. These diseases include small pox, influenza, measles, and chicken pox, they all proved to be deadly to the native people. These diseases had the ability to spread either through direct
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voyage was on its way to the New World. Commanded by the King of Spain, seventeen ships made the voyage and onboard were more than 1200 soldiers, sailors, and colonists who carried diseases and many who have fallen dreadfully ill during the expedition. When the Spanish reached their destination, the diseases soon spread across the land which infected the Indians. The natives had no previous exposure to the virus or to the several other diseases. Smallpox, influenza and measles were the most common and the most rapid epidemic killer of them all. With the Indians weak and unarmed, it was effortless for the Spanish to take control. Soon the Spanish were drunk with power. There tyranny
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very deadly such as the 1918 Influenza which is also called “The Mother of All Pandemics” and the “Spanish Flu”. This deadly strand, which killed approximately fifty million people worldwide, was the H1N1 was a very quick attaching virus in which a person would feel healthy in the morning but by night they were on their deathbed. Some people died from complications caused by bacteria, such as pneumonia, rather than the actual flu. This flu infected healthy adults ranging from ages twenty to forty years old, killing nearly 675,000 people in the United States. People were very uneducated on the flu because this was the first time it had appeared. Every flu strand that we still see today can be
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, was a demographic catastrophe that killed millions of people, weakened existing societies, and greatly aided the Spanish and Portuguese in their rapid and devastating conquest of the existing American empires (Brinkley 2013). Interaction took place with the arrival of whites and foreigners. The first and perhaps most profound result of this exchange was the importation of European diseases to the New World (Brinkley 2013). Natives were exposed to such illnesses as measles, influenza, and typhus. Although, Europeans did have better and more powerful weapons, Native Americans held their own in battle.
In some areas, native populations were virtually wiped out within a few decades of their
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documented as a plague, it is not known for sure what disease struck the Athenians. Many individuals speculate that the disease was the bubonic plague, smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, or even influenza (Lampton 16-19).
The Plague of Athens was not the last event in human history to develop because of war. A major pandemic that was a result of a moving army, which carried disease, was The Influenza Pandemic of 1918. The Flu of 1918 developed during the final year of The Great War. The disease killed more individuals than the Great War and struck the rich as fiercely as it struck the poor. The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 is known by many names including the Spanish Flu of 1918 and simply the Flu
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chickens were culled. (P283) It has instead been shown that it is linked to a swine virus. Taken from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/viruses.htm :1918-19, "Spanish flu," [influenza A(H1N1)], caused the highest number of known flu deaths: more than 500,000 people died in the United States, and 20-50 million people may have died worldwide. The flu virus that caused it was very deadly. Many died within the first few days after infection and others died of complications soon thereafter. The Spanish flu was unique because almost half of the people who died were young, healthy adults.The Center for Disease Control's (CDC's) website is terrific. http://www.cdc.govI am glad I chose this book to
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mortality rate in people aged 25-30. If individuals would have realized that the influenza arrived with returning soldiers, the situation could have been dealt with more carefully.
It is very common for secondary sources to be formulated years after the actual event. After an event as traumatic and inconceivable as World War One, many people are just glad to be rid of it. Professor Hayes mentioned that the “‘Isms’ satisfy a particular agenda in present day.” Soldiers and their families were not trying to figure out who to blame for the war. They were content in blaming the Germans and thinking that “the war just happened.” Even the town council in the little town of Deseronto said that
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would fight the Spanish American War and gain control of the Philippines facilitating a similar goal.
US Imperialism drove the need for new markets; some requirements for the new markets would be a need for balanced trade and the also making exports exceed imports; to do this they sought new land. They were also interested in staging grounds for any contingencies in the future be it political, financial or militarily; this made Hawaii a prime candidate. They were situated in the middle of the ocean with better access to China, who was emerging as a great financial opportunity, and the sugar Hawaii produced was a prime export. The sugar was taxed however and was very expensive to get to the
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reason why slavery was not much enforced in this part of the Americas, which made the whole situation of Argentinean natives a much less harsh topic and may have lead to the eventual mix of the European race with the indigenous race. The very first Spanish settlement that was formed was called Fort Sancti Spiritu and was established by a Spanish settler, Charles V. Gaboto who arrived in 1527, and had been sent by the King. This settlement grew quite rapidly and most encounters with indigenous people were not always friendly; the colonists would try to teach the natives who were very prone to diseases the Spaniards had brought with them (such as smallpox, typhus, influenza, measles and common
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underdeveloped country, the mitigation system is incomplete, as well as the assistance measurement, hence the numeber of dead was significant. In addition, it is reported that nearly a month after a disastrous earthquake generated the tsunami along Japan's northeastern coast, approximately 15,000 individuals were still missing, and the majority of them are possibly never to be found (Sydney Morning Herald, 2011, internet). It can be concluded that the geological feature is sometimes also a factor causing serious casualties. Besides geological causes, a global pandemic could also be devastating as the 1918 Spanish influenza killed 50 million globally with most of its victim being young adults